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《心理科》请保持希望不要恐惧活着

  《心理科》请保持希望不要恐惧活着

  里克·汉森(Rick Hanson)博士

  这一系列最近的帖子以斯蒂芬·科尔伯特(Stephen Colbert)讽刺性的“ 继续保持恐惧的生命 ”为例,及时地说明了一个更大的观点:人类逐渐变得恐惧–大脑负性偏见的主要特征帮助我们的祖先传承了自己的思想。基因。 因此,正如许多研究表明的那样,我们通常受到负面体验(我的意思是痛苦的)的影响要大于正面体验的影响。

  除了这种偏见对个人的影响外,它还使人们和国家更容易受到威胁(包括真实威胁和“纸老虎”)的操纵。 科尔伯特在嘲笑那些恐惧的人,因为我们当然不需要付出更多的努力就能使恐惧继续存在。

  你的大脑消极

  痛苦的经历从轻微的不适到极度痛苦,不一而足。 悲伤可以使人敞开心heart,愤怒可以凸显不公正,恐惧可以使您警觉到真正的威胁,而re悔可以帮助您下​​次走上高路。

  但是,这个世界上真的有苦难的短缺吗? 在镜子里看着别人的脸,或者自己的脸,看看疲倦,发怒,压力,失望,渴望和担忧的痕迹。 生活中已经充满了挑战-包括不可避免的疾病,失去亲人,年老和死亡-无需大脑偏见即可每天给您带来额外的痛苦。

  然而,正如我在 上 文章中所 一篇 探讨的那样,您的大脑正好进化出这样的“负偏见”,以帮助您的祖先传承其基因-这种偏见如今已造成许多附带损害。

  痛苦的代价

  痛苦的经历远不止是不适。 它们会对您的身心健康造成持久伤害。 当您感到疲惫不堪,压力重重,情绪低落,对自己不满或感到沮丧时:

  削弱您的免疫系统

  损害胃肠系统中的营养吸收

  增加心血管系统的脆弱性

  减少您的生殖激素; 加剧PMS

  扰乱你的神经系统

  考虑一句著名的谚语:“神经元在一起发射,在一起。” 这意味着反复的痛苦经历-即使是轻微的经历-往往会:

  增加悲观,焦虑和烦躁

  放下心情

  减少野心和积极冒险

  在一对夫妇中,不愉快的经历会增加不信任感,提高对相对较小的问题,距离和恶性循环的敏感性。 在更大的规模上(在团体或国家之间),它们的行为大致相同。

  因此,不要轻易掉以痛苦的经历,无论是获得的经历,还是坦白地说,您给予的经历。 在可能的情况下阻止它们,并在无法的情况下帮助它们通过。

  倾斜正

  减少负面经历需要在三个方面采取行动:在世界上(包括您的人际关系),在您的身体和思想上。 一切都很重要。 在这篇简短的文章中,我将重点介绍一些您可以想到的事情,而这些事情只是任何书店的自助部分中所有可用资源的一小部分。

  对于初学者,请为自己站起来,以尽可能合理地感觉良好。 他们站在门口时承受痛苦经历的站台,鼓励他们从头到尾一直走下去的站台。

  这并不是因为感到不适或苦恼而战,反而只会增加消极情绪,就像试图用汽油扑灭大火一样。 取而代之的是,对痛苦的经历所产生的毒害作用,对自己来说是友善,明智和现实的。

  实际上,您只是在对自己说些您想对痛苦的亲爱的朋友说的话: 我希望您感觉更好,我将为您提供帮助 。 现在就尝试对自己说这些。 感觉怎么样?

  当情绪上的痛苦确实出现时,甚至可以轻柔地将其保持在宽广的意识空间中。 在一个传统的比喻中,想象一下将一大勺盐倒入一杯水中,然后饮用:。 但是,然后想象一下,将一勺汤匙倒入干净的水桶中,然后再喝一杯:它所含的盐量相同,所引起的忧虑或沮丧程度相同,感觉不足或发蓝,但是容纳的范围更大。 请注意,意识没有任何边缘,像天空一样无边无际,思想和感觉不断传递。

  在您的脑海中,请注意负面信息,事件或体验似乎能胜过正面信息,事件或体验。 例如,研究人员发现,人们通常会更努力地工作或忍受更多的杂物,以避免失去某件事而不是获得同一件事。 而且,与一种或多种美德相比,他们感到被一种过失所污染的程度更高。 尝试切换一下; 例如,选择一些您的优良品质,并继续观察它们在本周生活中的表现。

  每当您感到沮丧,沮丧或失望时,请当心。 正如马丁·塞利格曼(Martin Seligman)和其他人所表明的那样,人类(和其他哺乳动物)非常容易遭受所谓的“习得性无助感”,从而形成徒劳,僵化和被动的感觉。 专注于可以有所作为的地方,拥有力量的地方; 它可能只存在于您自己的内心,但这总比没有好。

  在您的人际关系中,要注意对一个负面事件的反应要强于对一系列正面事件的反应。 例如,研究表明,通常需要数次积极的互动才能弥补一次消极的遭遇。 选择一个重要的关系,然后真正注意其中的工作; 让自己对这些事情感觉良好。 当然,要处理这种关系中的问题,但要保持透视。

  总体而言,每当您记住时,都会刻意向积极的想法倾斜。 那不是通过玫瑰色的眼镜看世界。 考虑到大脑的消极偏见,您只是在公平地进行比赛。

  我的下一篇文章将解决消极偏见的一个关键后果:威胁反应性,它具有许多不良影响,包括“纸老虎妄想症”。 接下来的帖子将探讨更多解决消极偏见的方法,从激活舒缓和充电的副交感神经系统到调动更多的内部资源来应对地球面临的真正挑战。

  里克·汉森(Rick Hanson)博士 ,是神经心理学家和 创始人 Wellspring神经科学与沉思智慧研究所的 。 他的工作曾在BBC,NPR,消费者报告健康,《美国新闻与世界报道》和《赫芬顿邮报》上发表,他是最畅销的《 佛陀的大脑:幸福,爱与智慧的实用神经科学》的作者 。 他每周写一次时事通讯《 Just One Thing》,建议每周进行一次简单的练习,这将带给您更多的欢乐,更充实的人际关系以及更加内心的平静

  本文为为个人学习、科学研究(科学普及)或者欣赏用,本文仅代表作者观点,仅用于分享交流用,如有侵权请告知将立即删除

  Keep Hope Not Fear Alive

  by Rick Hanson, Ph.D.

  This recent series of posts has used the example of Stephen Colbert’s satirical “March to Keep Fear Alive” as a timely illustration of a larger point: humans evolved to be fearful — a major feature of the brain’s negativity bias that helped our ancestors pass on their genes. Consequently, as much research has shown, we’re usually much more affected by negative — by which I mean painful — experiences than by positive ones.

  Besides the personal impacts of this bias in the brain, it also makes people, and nations, vulnerable to being manipulated by threats, both real ones and “paper tigers.” Colbert is mocking those who play on fear, since we surely don’t need more efforts to keep fear alive.

  Your Brain on Negative

  Painful experiences range from subtle discomfort to extreme anguish — and there is a place for them. Sorrow can open the heart, anger can highlight injustices, fear can alert you to real threats, and remorse can help you take the high road next time.

  But is there really any shortage of suffering in this world? Look at the faces of others, or your own, in the mirror, and see the marks of weariness, irritation, stress, disappointment, longing and worry. There’s plenty of challenge in life already — including unavoidable illness, loss of loved ones, old age and death — without needing a bias in your brain to give you an extra dose of pain each day.

  Yet as my last post explored, your brain evolved exactly such a “negativity bias” in order to help your ancestors pass on their genes — a bias that produces lots of collateral damage today.

  The Price of Pain

  Painful experiences are more than passing discomforts. They produce lasting harms to your physical and mental health. When you’re feeling frazzled, pressured, down, hard on yourself or simply frustrated, that:

  Weakens your immune system

  Impairs nutrient absorption in your gastrointestinal system

  Increases vulnerabilities in your cardiovascular system

  Decreases your reproductive hormones; exacerbates PMS

  Disturbs your nervous system

  Consider the famous saying: “Neurons that fire together, wire together.” This means that repeated painful experiences — even mild ones — tend to:

  Increase pessimism, anxiety and irritability

  Lower your mood

  Reduce ambition and positive risk-taking

  In a couple, upsetting experiences foster mistrust, heightened sensitivity to relatively small issues, distance and vicious cycles. At much larger scales — between groups or nations — they do much the same.

  So don’t take painful experiences lightly, neither the ones you get nor, honestly, the ones you give. Prevent them when you can, and help them pass through when you can’t.

  Tilting Positive

  Reducing negative experiences entails taking action in three domains: in the world (including your relationships), in your body and in your mind. All are important. In this brief post, I’m focusing on some things you can do in your mind — and those things are just a small fraction of all the resources available in the self help section of any bookstore.

  For starters, take a stand for yourself, for feeling as good as you reasonably can. A stand for bearing painful experiences when they walk through the door — and a stand for encouraging them to keep on walking, all the way out of your mind.

  This is not being at war with discomfort or distress, which would just add negativity, like trying to put out a fire with gasoline. Instead, it is being kind to yourself, wise and realistic about the toxic effects of painful experiences.

  In effect, you’re simply saying to yourself something you’d say to a dear friend in pain: I want you to feel better, and I’m going to help you. Try saying that to yourself in your mind right now. How does it feel?

  When emotional pain does come, even softly, try to hold it in a large space of awareness. In a traditional metaphor, imagine stirring a big spoon of salt into a cup of water and then drinking it: yuck. But then imagine stirring that spoonful into a clean bucket of water and then drinking a cup: it’s the same amount of salt — the same amount of worry or frustration, feeling inadequate or blue — but held in a larger context. Notice that awareness is without any edges, boundless like the sky, with thoughts and feelings passing through.

  In your mind, watch out for how negative information, events or experiences can seem to overpower positive ones. For example, researchers have found that people typically will work harder or put up with more crud to avoid losing something than to gain the same thing. And they feel more contaminated by one fault than they feel cleansed or elevated by several virtues. Try to switch this around; for instance, pick some of your good qualities and keep seeing how they show up in your life this week.

  Be careful whenever you feel stymied, frustrated or disappointed. As Martin Seligman and others have shown, humans (and other mammals) are very vulnerable to what’s called “learned helplessness” — developing a sense of futility, immobilization and passivity. Focus on where you can make a difference, where you do have power; it may only be inside your own mind, but that’s better than nothing at all.

  In your relationships, be mindful of reacting more strongly to one negative event than to a bunch of positive ones. For example, studies have shown that it typically takes several positive interactions to make up for a single negative encounter. Pick an important relationship, and then really pay attention to what’s working in it; let yourself feel good about these things. Deal with the problems in this relationship, sure, but keep them in perspective.

  Overall, whenever you remember, deliberately tilt toward the positive in your mind. That’s not looking at the world through rose-colored glasses. Given the negativity bias in the brain, you’re only leveling the playing field.

  My next post will tackle a key consequence of the negativity bias: threat reactivity, which has many bad effects, including “paper tiger paranoia.” Following posts will explore more ways to address the negativity bias, from activating the soothing and recharging parasympathetic nervous system to mobilizing more of your inner resources to address the real challenges our planet faces.

  Rick Hanson, Ph.D., is a neuropsychologist and founder of the Wellspring Institute for Neuroscience and Contemplative Wisdom. His work has been featured on the BBC, NPR, Consumer Reports Health, U.S. News and World Report, and Huffington Post, and he is the author of the best-selling Buddha’s Brain: The Practical Neuroscience of Happiness, Love, and Wisdom. He writes a weekly newsletter – Just One Thing – that suggests a simple practice each week that will bring you more joy, more fulfilling relationships, and more peace of mind and heart. If you wish, you can subscribe to Just One Thing here.

  Tags: brain, Brain Function, Brain Science, Buddha’s Brain, Cognitive Neuropsychology, Fear, Neuropsychology, neuroscience, Rick Hanson

  Dr. Hanson is a neuropsychologist in San Rafael, California. His practice includes adults, couples, families, and children, as well as psychological assessments of children and adults related to temperament, school performance, and educational and vocational planning

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